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          • DR300便携式比色计是PCII的新一代产品,于2019年正式全球上市。二十多年来,哈希便携式比色计被应用在各种恶劣工况下。在此基础上,哈希做了多方面改进:升级的防水性能、更大的显示屏、更加符合人体工学的设计。并进一步加入智能化功能:可选配的蓝牙连接功能,一键数据传输、无缝集成数据系统,组成全新一代哈希便携式比色计DR300。它可以减少繁琐的数据收集,避免数据誊写错误,确保更强的合规性和溯源能力。问: DR300使用的药剂和PCII一样吗?答: 药剂和PCII一样。问: DR300包装中不含试剂?答: 是的,请注意需额外订购试剂。问: 一些PCII已经停产,但是DR300又没有提供的型号,比如硫酸盐、铅、铜等怎么进行选购?答: 建议客户使用DR900进行测定。问: Claros系统目前在中国可售吗?答: Claros系统目前在中国暂时不可售,与Claros系统相关的应用及产品配件也不可销售。具体上市时间请关注上市通知。问: 客户购买的DR300,以后怎么升级使用无线连接功能,以及Claros系统?答: 客户只需要采购哈希通讯适配器,并进行安装(类似手机SIM卡),即可完成升级。Claros系统相应功能需要等待该服务在中国的销售策略。问: DR300具有相关的计量认证吗?答: 国家市场监管总局已取消水质分析仪器的相关计量认证,DR300目前不需要相关计量认证证书。

          • 在水处理中的加氯量包含二个部分:一部分是实际消耗的需氯量,即这部分氯在杀灭水中的细菌与微生物,以及与有机物的反应过程中被消耗掉了,另一部分是剩余的氯量,剩余的氯量就叫余氯。加氯法消毒需要水中存在一定浓度的剩余氯,因为它可以抑制水中残存细菌的再度繁殖,保持持续的杀菌能力,防止水污染。但是,余氯量过大,也会对人的皮肤有刺激作用,并且会产生对人体和环境有害的化合物。因此,加氯量的控制就是对余氯量的控制,这是加氯法消毒中*重要的工艺要求,而余氯量的测试就是这种要求的*直接体现。

          • ORP测量电极(铂或金),其表面应该是光亮的,粗糙的表面对氧化还原电位的响应比表面光亮的电极要慢得多。另外,ORP电极经长期使用后,铂或金的表面受污染也会导致测量不准和响应慢,此时可用下列方法进行清洗活化:a)   对无机物污染,可将电极浸入0.1mol/L稀盐酸中30分钟,用纯水清洗,再浸入电极浸泡液中6小时后使用。b)   对有机油污和油膜污染,可用洗涤剂清洗铂或金表面后用纯水清洗,再浸入电极浸泡液中6小时后使用。c)   铂金表面污染严重表面形成氧化膜,可用牙膏对铂或金表面进行抛光,然后用纯水清洗,再浸入电极浸泡液中6小时后使用。 ORP电极浸泡液的配制方法详见第19条(与pH电极浸泡液一样)。

          • 在自然界的水体中,存在着多种变价的离子和溶解氧,当一些工业污水排入水中,水中含有大量的离子和有机物质,由于离子间性质不同,在水体中发生氧化还原反应并趋于平衡,因此在自然界的水体中不是单一的氧化还原系统,而是一个氧化还原的混合系统。测量电极所反应的也是一个混合电位,它具有很大的试验性误差。另外,溶液的pH值也对ORP值有影响。因此,氧化还原电位是一种对溶液的氧化还原能力的定性测定,它反映的是一种相对状况,或者也可以说是对氧化还原反应平衡状态和反应过程完成程度的一种趋势和状态的描述,而不是一种理论上的定量推算。因此,在实际测量过程中强调溶液的**电位是没有意义的。我们可以说溶液的ORP值在某一数值点附近表示了溶液的一种还原或氧化状态,或表示了溶液的某种性质(如卫生程度等),但这个数值会有较大的不同,你无法对它作出定量的确定,这和pH测试中的准确度是二个概念。另外,影响ORP值的温度系数也是一个变量,无法修正,因此ORP计一般都没有温度补偿功能。

          • 电导率的测量原理其实就是按欧姆定律测定平行电极间溶液部分的电阻。但是,当电流通过电极时,会发生氧化或还原反应,从而改变电极附近溶液的组成,产生“极化”现象,从而引起电导测量的严重误差。为此,采用高频交流电测定法,可以减轻或消除上述极化现象,因为在电极表面的氧化和还原迅速交替进行,其结果可以认为没有氧化或还原发生。电导率仪由电导电极和电计(电子单元)组成。电计采用了适当频率的交流信号的方法,将信号放大处理后换算成电导率。电计中还可能装有与传感器相匹配的温度测量系统,能补偿到标准温度电导率的温度补偿系统、温度系数调节系统以及电导池常数调节系统,以及自动换挡功能等。电导电极有时还装有热敏元件。

          • 电导电极使用的敏感材料通常为铂,镀铂黑就是在铂表面镀上一层黑色蓬松的金属铂,目的是为了减少极化效应。多孔的铂黑增加了电极的表面积,使电流密度减小,使极化效应变小,电容干扰也降低了。不镀铂黑或镀得不好的铂黑电极,会产生很大的测量误差。铂黑电极存放期间要泡在蒸馏水中不宜干放。如果发现铂黑电极污染或失效,可浸入10%硝酸或盐酸溶液中二分钟,然后用蒸馏水冲洗干净再测量,铂黑电极也可以重新电镀,但镀铂黑需要一定的要求和经验,镀黑层镀得好与坏对电极性能有很大影响。在国内一些电导电极或电导率仪的说明书中,对铂黑电极有一种误解,认为铂黑电极适合于高电导率的溶液中使用,其实不然,铂黑电极测试几个μS/cm甚至0.1μS/cm的溶液都可以,而在高电导率的溶液中的测试,铂黑电极就更稳定和准确了。因此常数大于1的电导电极,都应该使用铂黑电极。而不镀铂黑的光亮电导电极,因为它只能在较小电导率的溶液中使用,所以常数<1的电导电极可以使用光亮电极。光亮电极的另一个优点是铂片表面可以擦拭,而铂黑电极表面则**不能擦拭,只能在水中晃动清洗。

          • 由于水中含有各种溶解盐类,并以离子的形式存在。当水中插入一对电极时,通电之后,在电场的作用下,带电的离子就产生一定方向的移动。水中阴离子移向阳极,使水溶液起导电作用,水的导电能力的强弱程度,就称为电导(或电导度),用G表示。电导反映了水中含盐量的多少,是水的纯净程度的一个重要指标,水越纯净,含盐量越少,电阻越大,电导越小,超纯水几乎不能导电。电导是电阻的倒数,即                        G =1/R式中  R — 电阻 单位欧姆(Ω)G — 电导 单位西门子(S) 1S=103mS=106μS因R =ρ* (L/F)   (见49题),代入上式,则得到:         G =(1/P) ·(F/L) 对于一对固定电极来讲,二极间的距离不变,电极面积也不变,因此L与F为一个常数。令:J = L/F,J就称为电极常数,可得到G =1/P ·1/J  = K· (1/J)   式中:K =1/ρ就称为电导率,单位为S/cm。1S/cm=103mS/cm = 106μS/cm。电导率K的意义就是截面积为1cm2,长度为1cm的导体的电导。当电导常数J = 1时,电导率就等于电导,电导率是不同电解质溶液导电能力的表现。电导率K,电导G,电阻率ρ三者之间的关系如下:                        K = J · G =  1/P 式中J为电极常数,例如:电导率为0.1μS/cm的高纯水,其电阻率应为:                ρ=  1/K   =    (1/0.1) ×106 = 10MΩ·cm

          • 与实验室取样测量pH不同,在线pH测量是要求在生产现场及工艺条件下连续测量、记录pH值。因此要求测量装置具有设备牢固、工作可靠以及安装、操作、维护方便,以利于长期连续工作。根据安装的位置要求,在线pH测量电极系统有两种基本的设计。一种是浸入式结构,用于反应池或反应罐内的pH测量。另一种为流通式结构,用于管道系统,电极的选择应根据工艺技术的要求。由于玻璃电**有高内阻,所以导线及整个输入电路的绝缘电阻必须很大,要求使用高绝缘性能的电缆、密封罩以及接线盒。电极引线应穿入导管中,并与交流电源或开关线路分开安装。导线应固定好,经常活动的导线会引起慢性漏电,造成测量误差。电极和仪器系统应特别注意“接地”问题。一般反应罐或管道都是与大地相连接的,因而被测溶液实际上是与大地相连的。因此,在线pH测量仪器必须是“浮地”的,以防止参比电极通过溶液、反应罐及地端形成放电回路引起电极极化。玻璃电极输入端对地的绝缘电阻应大于1012欧姆,参比电极端对地的绝缘电阻应大于109欧姆,同时仪器线路的公共端应注意连接,防止由于电阻变化引起的不稳定。双高阻输入三电极体系(其中一支为溶液接地电极)*适合于在线pH测量使用。有时,在测量溶液中可能存在电位梯度(例如电镀、电解槽内即属此种情况),此时应将玻璃电极及参比电极安装在与等电面垂直的方向上,只有这一位置才能防止溶液电位对测量的干扰。在某些工业部门需要遥测及记录pH值。对此可以采用pH变送器,将变送器装在电极附近,变送器送出标准的电流信号或电压信号,由pH控制器接受这些信号进行控制或由电脑终端编程进行控制,pH变送器的信号输送距离可达几十米至几百米。在线pH测量中,电极的沾污也是经常遇到的另一个问题。在电极敏感膜上沾附上某些物质,例如,油类、沥青、胶体物质、悬浮物及固体结块等,均会引起电极响应迟钝,甚至使电极失效。为了保证有效的连续测量,电极系统应安装清洗装置。常用的有定时自动刷洗、超声波清洗或定时喷水清洗等等。另一种办法是在测量池前面安装过滤分离设备,将样品液流中可能沾污电极的物质分离去,然后进入测量池测量。还有一种*简单和可靠的方法,是定期进行的清洗,具体期限应根据被测介质的液体情况及测试的精度要求综合考虑,一般为一周至几周,同时也可用二支电极进行交换使用,换下的电极进行清洗和活化,更可延长电极寿命。在线pH测量中样品溶液温度的波动将引起电极电势的变化,因此为了保证测量的准确可靠,应用自动温度补偿是非常重要的。自动温度补偿的基本原理是在测量线路上接入一个浸在样品溶液中的热敏电阻(称为温度补偿电极)此热敏电阻的阻值随溶液温度而变化,从而达到补偿的目的。为了保证测量的准确度,电极系统的校准也是十分重要的。校准周期因测量条件及精确度要求而定,一般几天或一月校准一次。校准的方法可用标准缓冲溶液导入测量池中代替样品溶液进行,也可以在测量点取样用精密pH计测出pH值,据此对在线仪器示值进行校正。注意校准溶液的温度与样品溶液温度应尽量一致。

          • 在水溶液温度高于100℃时进行pH测量,一般都伴随有高压问题,因为这时只有加压水溶液才不会沸腾。也有一些情况,例如深海pH测量,是常温高压下的pH测量。高压pH测量首先要求玻璃电极能够承受高压力,因此玻璃球膜必须加厚至0.3毫米以上。厚的玻璃球膜可承受达25公斤/厘米2的压力。至于参比电极,必须解决压力补偿的问题,否则被测溶液将倒灌入参比电极内部使测量无法进行。参比电极的压力补偿方法有外加压力补偿及自压力补偿两种类型。也有一种参比电极采用固体凝胶,可承受6bar的压力。

          • 与实验室取样测量pH不同,在线pH测量是要求在生产现场及工艺条件下连续测量、记录pH值。因此要求测量装置具有设备牢固、工作可靠以及安装、操作、维护方便,以利于长期连续工作。根据安装的位置要求,在线pH测量电极系统有两种基本的设计。一种是浸入式结构,用于反应池或反应罐内的pH测量。另一种为流通式结构,用于管道系统,电极的选择应根据工艺技术的要求。由于玻璃电**有高内阻,所以导线及整个输入电路的绝缘电阻必须很大,要求使用高绝缘性能的电缆、密封罩以及接线盒。电极引线应穿入导管中,并与交流电源或开关线路分开安装。导线应固定好,经常活动的导线会引起慢性漏电,造成测量误差。电极和仪器系统应特别注意“接地”问题。一般反应罐或管道都是与大地相连接的,因而被测溶液实际上是与大地相连的。因此,在线pH测量仪器必须是“浮地”的,以防止参比电极通过溶液、反应罐及地端形成放电回路引起电极极化。玻璃电极输入端对地的绝缘电阻应大于1012欧姆,参比电极端对地的绝缘电阻应大于109欧姆,同时仪器线路的公共端应注意连接,防止由于电阻变化引起的不稳定。双高阻输入三电极体系(其中一支为溶液接地电极)*适合于在线pH测量使用。有时,在测量溶液中可能存在电位梯度(例如电镀、电解槽内即属此种情况),此时应将玻璃电极及参比电极安装在与等电面垂直的方向上,只有这一位置才能防止溶液电位对测量的干扰。在某些工业部门需要遥测及记录pH值。对此可以采用pH变送器,将变送器装在电极附近,变送器送出标准的电流信号或电压信号,由pH控制器接受这些信号进行控制或由电脑终端编程进行控制,pH变送器的信号输送距离可达几十米至几百米。在线pH测量中,电极的沾污也是经常遇到的另一个问题。在电极敏感膜上沾附上某些物质,例如,油类、沥青、胶体物质、悬浮物及固体结块等,均会引起电极响应迟钝,甚至使电极失效。为了保证有效的连续测量,电极系统应安装清洗装置。常用的有定时自动刷洗、超声波清洗或定时喷水清洗等等。另一种办法是在测量池前面安装过滤分离设备,将样品液流中可能沾污电极的物质分离去,然后进入测量池测量。还有一种*简单和可靠的方法,是定期进行的清洗,具体期限应根据被测介质的液体情况及测试的精度要求综合考虑,一般为一周至几周,同时也可用二支电极进行交换使用,换下的电极进行清洗和活化,更可延长电极寿命。在线pH测量中样品溶液温度的波动将引起电极电势的变化,因此为了保证测量的准确可靠,应用自动温度补偿是非常重要的。自动温度补偿的基本原理是在测量线路上接入一个浸在样品溶液中的热敏电阻(称为温度补偿电极)此热敏电阻的阻值随溶液温度而变化,从而达到补偿的目的。为了保证测量的准确度,电极系统的校准也是十分重要的。校准周期因测量条件及精确度要求而定,一般几天或一月校准一次。校准的方法可用标准缓冲溶液导入测量池中代替样品溶液进行,也可以在测量点取样用精密pH计测出pH值,据此对在线仪器示值进行校正。注意校准溶液的温度与样品溶液温度应尽量一致。

          • 一定浓度的溶液,其电导率随温度的改变而改变,在作精密测量时应该保持恒温,也可在任意温度下测量,然后通过仪器的温度补偿系统,换算成25℃时的电导率,这样测量数值就可以比较。但是,由于各种不同种类,不同浓度的电导率温度系数各不相同,例如酸溶液的温度系数为(1.0~1.6)%/℃,碱溶液的温度系数为(1.8~2.2)%/℃,盐溶液的温度系数为(2.2~3.0)%/℃,天然水的温度系数为2.0%/℃,因此电导率测量的温度补偿问题比较复杂,或者可以认为这种温度补偿是不充分的,或有较大误差的。为此,有些电导率仪就不采用温度补偿电路,仪器测得的是当时温度下的电导率值。有温度补偿的电导率仪,若将温度补偿旋钮调至25℃时,仪器也无温度补偿作用,测量值为当时温度下的未经换算的电导率值。

          • 传统的余氯测试方法主要有分光光度法和比色法,这二种方法的缺点是:需要5种以上的试剂和溶液,测试精度受样品的颜色和浑浊度的影响。因此,这些方法需要专业的实验人员操作,程序复杂时间长,难于在野外和现场进行测试,而电极法测试只需一粒试剂药片,几分钟时间,一个普通的人根据说明书要求就能熟练操作,而且测试结果不受溶液颜色和浑浊度的影响。所以在余氯测试的各种方法中,电极法是*简单和精确的方法。

          • 水的消毒方法可分化学和物理的两种。物理消毒方法有加热法、紫外线法、超声波等法。化学方法有加氯法、臭氧法、去重金属离子法以及其他氧化剂法等。其中以加氯法使用*为普遍,因为氯的消毒能力强,价格便宜,设备简单,余氯测定方便,便于加量调节等优点而得到广泛应用。日常生活中的自来水、游泳池水以及大部分的工业用水消毒处理大都采用加氯法消毒。

          • 首先,ORP测试一定要应用在有氧化还原系统的水体中,否则测试将很不稳定。现在ORP测试在废水处理中的应用已越来越普遍,主要用于水处理上的氧化还原系统,如铬酸的还原与氧化物的氧化,废水中如果添加二硫化钠或二氧化硫,可使六价铬还原成三价铬,若添加氯或次氯酸纳,可用来氧化氰化物,等等。一般来说,铂电极应用于氧化体系,金电极应用于还原体系。ORP计也可以用来测量游泳池水、矿泉水及饮用水的杀菌消毒效果,因为水中的大肠菌的杀菌效率与氧化还原电位有关,因此一定的ORP值可以表示出水体的含菌量程度。水处理中的ORP值一般都是正的mV值,一般的ORP电极也都能满足这种响应特性,但也有例外,近年来,在饮用水行业兴起了一种整水器,该仪器能将水电解分离成酸性水和碱性水,碱性水主要用于饮用,对人体有好处,碱性水卫生指标的测定,ORP值就是一个重要的数据。但该指标的ORP值是负的mV值,进行此类测试的ORP电极,需要对铂金进行特殊处理,一般使用的ORP电极难以测试准确。上海三信仪表厂已研制成功这种在碱性离子水中有稳定负电位响应的ORP电极。

          • GTCON20笔式电导率仪/TDS/盐度测定仪 测量范围:2.0 μS/cm~20.00 mS/cm

          • ORP是英文Oxidation-Reduction Potential的缩写,它表示溶液的氧化还原电位。ORP值是水溶液氧化还原能力的测量指标,其单位是mV。ORP计是测试溶液氧化还原电位的专用仪器,它由ORP复合电极和mV计组成。ORP电极是一种可以在其敏感层表面进行电子吸收或释放的电极,该敏感层是一种惰性金属,通常是用铂和金来制作。参比电极是和pH电极一样的银/氯化银电极。

          • GTPH20 PH测试笔;测量范围: -2.00~16.00pH;精确度: ±0.1pH

          • TDS计是英文“Total Dissolved Solid”的缩写,意思是可溶解固体总量,可溶解固体总量是指溶解在水里的无机盐和有机物的总称。其主要成分有钙、镁、钠、钾离子和碳酸离子、碳酸氢离子、氯离子、硫酸离子和硝酸离子等。因此TDS计就是可溶解固体总量测试仪。TDS计的单位是ppm(即mg/L),其量值定义为一定比例数的电导率值,一般取0.7左右。因此,TDS计的原理和结构,其实就是电导率仪,只是约定了一个比例数,定义为TDS。TDS计自动温度补偿的基准温度一般为25℃,温度系数一般为2%/℃。

          • Model MP515Precision Conductivity MeterOperation ManualShanghai San-Xin Instrumentation, Inc.MP500 Series of Electrochemical Meters一.Multi-parameter MeterModel MP551pH/mV/ISE/Cond/DO Meter二.Double Parameter Meters1. Model MP521 Lab pH/Cond Meter (pH:±0.01 pH;Conductivity: ±1.0% FS)2. Model MP522 Precision pH/Cond Meter (pH:±0.002 pH; Conductivity: ±0.5% FS)3. Model MP523 pH/ISE Meter4. Model MP525 pH/DO Meter5. Model MP526 Cond/DO Meter三.Single Parameter MetersMP511 Lab pH Meter (±0.01 pH)MP512 Precision pH Meter (±0.002 pH)MP513 Lab Conductivity Meter (±1.0% FS)MP515 Precision Conductivity Meter (±0.5% FS)MP516 DO MeterMP517 Sodium Ion Concentration MeterMP518 Calcium Ion Concentration MeterMP519 Fluoride Ion Concentration MeterTable of Content1. Brief Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------2. Technical Parameters ---------------------------------------------------------------3. Introductions to the Meter ---------------------------------------------------------3.1. LCD Display --------------------------------------------------------------------3.2. Operation Keys ------------------------------------------------------------------3.3. The Storage, Recall and Elimination of the Measuring Information -----3.4. RS-232 Communication -------------------------------------------------------3.5. Sockets ---------------------------------------------------------------------------4. Conductivity Measurement --------------------------------------------------------4.1. Preparation Work ---------------------------------------------------------------4.2. Electrode Calibration -----------------------------------------------------------4.3. Sample Test ----------------------------------------------------------------------4.4. Important statements -----------------------------------------------------------4.5. Parameter Setting ---------------------------------------------------------------4.6. Considerations -------------------------------------------------------------------5. Meter’s Complete Kit --------------------------------------------------------------6. Warranty -----------------------------------------------------------------------------ChartⅠ Meter Producer Setting ScheduleChartⅡ Code Icon and Abbreviation Schedule1. Brief Introduction:Thanks for buying and using the Model MP515 Precision Conductivity Meter (the following called “meter” in short).Before using this meter, please read the operation manual carefully in order to help use and maintain it correctly. On the basis of improving instrument performance constantly, we reserve the right of changing the content of this manual and accessories in case of not notifying in advance.This meter is a perfect combination with the most advanced electronic, sensor technology and software design which is the best lab conductivity analysis meter with the highest performance and the lowest cost. It is suitable for the trade such as the petroleum, chemical industry, medicine, power plant and environmental protection, etc., especially has more extensive application in the fields of education and scientific research.Built-in microprocessor chip, beautiful appearance and convenient operations, this meter has the following prominent features:1.1. Meter meets with the requirement of international GLP standards. Its features up to automatic calibration, automatic temperature compensation, data storage, timing measurement, clock display, RS-232 output and function setting etc.1.2. Adopts digital filter and step slipping technology to improve meter’s response speed and result accuracy. “      ” will appear when reading to be stable.1.3. Adopts advanced automatic frequency convertible and voltage regulation technology to enlarge the measuring range of conductivity electrode which constant K=1 to 10 times. It can meet measuring accuracy requirement for range within 100mS/cm by using only one-point calibration. It is the particular one–point calibration function for this meter.1.4. Automatically recognize 8 kinds of conductivity standard solution. User can choose anyone from two series of solutions: Europe & USA series and China series.1.5. Automatic choose conductivity measuring range, the meter has function of non-linearity automatic temperature compensation for high purified water less than 10μS/cm, which can greatly improve the measuring accuracy. It is especially suitable for electric power, microelectronics and medicine business.1.6. Meter’s circuit board adopts SMT film-covering technology to improve meter’s reliability.1.7. Meter has the only product serial number.1.8. Dustproof and waterproof meter meets IP54 standards, all sockets are seal protected by the silica gel caps.2. Technical Parameters:2.1. Conductivity:Measuring rangeConductivity: (0 to 2×106) μS/cm, can be divided into below 6 ranges:(0.00 to 20.00)μS/cm; (20.0 to 200.0)μS/cm;(200 to 2000)μS/cm; (2.00 to 20.00) mS/cm;(20.0 to 200.0) mS/cm; (200 to 2000) mS/cm (K=10).Resistivity:(0 to 100) MΩ·cmTDS:      (0 to 100) g/LSalinity:    (0 to 100) pptResolution0.01/0.1/1μS/cm  0.01/0.1/1 mS/cmAccuracyMeter: ±0.5% FS; connect meter with electrode: ±0.75% FSTemp. compensation range(0 to 50) ℃ (automatic)Electrode constant0.1 / 0.5 / 1 / 5 / 10 / 100 cm-1Reference temperature25℃, 20℃ and 18℃2.2. Temperature:Measuring range-10℃to 110℃Resolution0.1℃Accuracy5~ 60℃ range:±0.4℃  other range:±0.8℃2.3. Other Technical Parameters:Data storage600 groupsStorage contentMeasuring value serial number, measuring value, temperature, ATC or MTC state, measuring date and timePowerDC9V/300mACommunication connectorRS-232Size and weight160 × 190 × 70mm/880gQuality and safety certificationISO9001:2000, CE and CMC2.4. Working Condition:Environment temperature(5 to 35) ℃Environmental humidity≤80%IP ratingIP54 Dustproof and waterproof  3. Introductions to the Meter:3.1. LCD Display:① —— Measuring mode icon② —— Measuring value③ —— Time, date and the indication icons for special measuring state.④ —— Measuring unit⑤ —— Temperature compensation icon:ATC — automatic temperature compensationMTC — manual temperature compensation⑥ —— Serial number and icon of the measuring value stored and recalled.M+ — measuring value to be stored iconRM — reading to be recalled icon; The left digit means serial number.⑦ —— The measured temperature value and unit⑧ —— RS-232 communication icon. When this icon appears, means meter has been connected with computer.⑨ —— Timing measuring icon⑩ —— Electrode calibration indication icon—— Measuring value stable icon3.2. Operation Keys:The meter has 8 operation keys in all.3.2.1. <     > — Switch key3.2.2. < CAL > — Calibration key, to make meter enters into calibration mode.3.2.3. < MODE > — Function key, press key to enter into the parameter setting mode, and will in turn display P1, P2, P3…3.2.4. < UNIT > — Parameter mode key, press this key to alter the parameter mode:       (resistivity) →       (total dissolved solid) →      (salinity) →         (conductivity); press key to choose modified position of parameter when in the parameter setting state.3.2.5. < ENTER > — Entrance key, when in the state of calibration or parameter setting, press the key to confirm. Then the meter enters into measuring state after pressing this key.3.2.6. < ▲ > and < ▼ > — Increase and decrease keyWhen in MTC state, press the key to increase or decrease the temperature value. Short-time press to alter 0.1℃ each time, while depress, the temperature will alter rapidly. When in the state of parameter setting, press the key to alter the number or ON/OFF state.3.2.7. < M+/RM > — The compound key of memory and recall, short-time press (press time <1.5s) to save the measuring data, depress (press time > 2 s) to recall the saved measuring value.3.3. The Storage, Recall and Elimination of the Measuring Information:3.3.1. Store the measuring information:(a) In the measuring mode, short press < M+/RM > key, LCD will display “ M+ ” icon and storage serial number, and meanwhile memory all the measuring information including time, date, serial number, measuring data, measuring unit, temperature, temperature compensation state and so on, meter can memory 600 groups of measuring information.(b) When setting the timing measuring function, “    ” icon will appear on the LCD, and the meter will measure according to the time intervals set, and store the measuring information at the same time.3.3.2. Recall measuring information:(a) Under the measuring mode, depress the < M+/RM > key, the meter will recall the last stored information, and the storage serial number and “ RM ” icon will appear in the lower right corner of the LCD, and the complete measuring information, measuring time and date will be displayed alternatively on the upper right corner of LCD. Again press < ▼ > or < ▲ > key, meter will recall all the measuring information in turn, depress < ▼ > or < ▲ > key to rapidly check the measuring information under other serial number;(b) In the recalling mode (there are “ RM ” icon and storage serial number in the lower right corner of the LCD), press < ENTER > key to return to the measuring mode.3.3.3. Eliminate the stored measuring information:In the recalling mode, depress the < M+RM > key for 5s, “      ” icon will display on the LCD for 2s. It means the internal storage has been eliminated, and then returns to measuring mode.3.4. RS-232 Communication:3.4.1.This meter adopts MP515 communication software which can achieve RS-232 communication function. The requirements for computer of this application software are: PC can stable operate the Windows XP operating system (Microsoft Excel 2000 or much higher version has been installed in PC). According to different selection of resolution setting (1280 x 1024 or 1280 x 800) to install MP515 communication software by following the indications. Open the MP515 communication software and connect meter, the LCD will display “     ” RS-232 communication icon. Meanwhile all the stored information including measuring value, measuring unit, temperature, temperature compensation state (ATC or MTC) and the last calibration information (calibration time, date and solution) will be transmitted to the computer.3.4.2.Again press < M+/RM > key after meter being connected with computer, or  timing measuring function has been set, all the measuring information will be transmitted to computer through RS-232 and won’t be stored in meter. And there will also display a curve graph of measurement value changing with time on the interface of computer.3.4.3. User can do operation such as analyzing, counting or printing etc. for all measuring information in “ Microsoft Excel ” file through the key “ Lead out ” in the interface of computer.3.5. Sockets:3.5.1. TEMP — Temperature electrode socket (RCA microphone socket)3.5.2. COND — Conductivity electrode socket (four pins socket)3.5.3. RS232 — RS232 communication connector socket3.5.4. DC9V — DC9V power socket, Ф2.5, inner “+ ” outer “ - ”.4. Conductivity Measurement:4.1. Preparation Work:4.1.1. Switch in power, press <     >key to turn on the meter, meter displays     mode;4.1.2. Press <UNIT> key to choose       (resistivity) →      (total dissolved solid) →      (salinity) →      (conductivity);4.1.3. Install electrode holder and debug it properly;4.1.4. Connect the 2401-M conductivity electrode into meter.4.2. Electrode Calibration:Press < CAL > key, “      ” is flashing on the upper right corner of LCD, indicate enters into the calibration mode, and wash the conductivity electrode with purified water and dry it, then insert it into the 1413μS/cm calibration solution, still it after stirring, when “    ” icon appears, means the display value is stable and again press < CAL > key, LCD will display flashing “ 1.413mS/cm ”, several seconds later the “      ” icon will appear and return to the measuring mode, at this time, LCD will display stable measuring value and calibration icon “   ”, indicate the calibration is finished.Note: Meter only can be calibrated under the mode of      , and can not be calibrated in mode of    ,     and     , must switch tomode, and again switch to the original mode after finishing calibration.4.3. Sample Test:4.3.1. Wash the conductivity electrode and throw off the water on it, then insert it into the solution, still it after stirring, (if the electrode is installed on the electrode rack to test, then need to short-shaking electrode rack), and take the reading after “    ” appears, which is the conductivity value of solution.4.3.2. Press < UNIT > key can display the value of the resistivity, TDS or salinity value which correspond the conductivity value.4.3.3. When using the conductivity electrode of electrode constant K=10, the measuring range can be enlarged to 2000mS/cm.4.4. Important Statements:4.4.1. This meter build-in below two kinds of calibration solution series, please set up in the parameter P1;(a)      (Europe & U.S.A. series) — 84μS/cm, 1413μS/cm, 12.88 mS/cm and 111.9 mS/cm(b)     (China series) — 146.6μS/cm, 1408μS/cm, 12.85mS/cm and 111.3 mS/cm4.4.2. This meter has the unique one-point calibration function, user can choose the calibration solution based on the principle of the water samples and calibration solution conductivity as close as possible, in general the commonly used calibration solution is 1413 μ S / cm. The equipped 2401 - M conductivity electrode (K = 1 cm-1) can be used within the range less than 100 mS / cm after calibrating with 1413 μ S / cm calibration solution. User can choose according to the chart (4-1).Chart (4-1)Measuring range0.05 to 20μS/cm0.5μS/cm to 200mS/cm100 to 2000mS/cmElectrode constantK=0.1cm-1(flow test)K=1.0cm-1K=10cm-1Calibration solution84μS/cm84μS/cm1413μS/cm12.88 mS/cm111.9 mS/cm111.9mS/cmCalibration indication icon4.4.3. There are two kinds of calibration methods which have been set in meter, the standard solution calibration method and constant calibration method, it is the standard solution calibration method in item 4.2. “Electrode Calibration”, the priority choice is standard solution calibration method, for it can ensure better accuracy when the accuracy of standard solution is accurate. If user is used to use constant calibration method, please set the electrode constant in the parameter set of P5 (see P17 item 4.5.6.). The two calibration methods can be selectively chose to use, they won’t affect each other. LCD won’t display calibration indication icon when adopting constant calibration method.4.4.4. The temperature compensation coefficient of meter is 2.0%/℃ by producer setting. However, the conductivity temperature coefficient is different for solution of different variety and concentrations, the user can refer chart  (4-2), as well as the data which they own get in the experiment, to set in the parameter setting of P4. Meter will do automatic non-linear temperature compensation in the high purified water which less than 10 μ S / cm.Please note that when setting the temperature coefficient of compensation to be 0, means there is no temperature compensation when testing, the measuring value is based on current temperature.Chart (4-2)SolutionTemperature compensation coefficientNaCl salt solution2.12%/℃5%NaOH solution1.72%/℃Dilute ammonia solution1.88%/℃10% hydrochroric acid solution1.32%/℃5% sulfuric acid solution0.96%/℃4.4.5. The information of meter’s other parameter setting, please refer to the chart (4-3).4.4.6. Special attention: when the content of parameter setting is consistent with content of producer setting, conductivity measuring interface will display as picture (4-1), the upper right corner of LCD will display time, when the content for parts of parameter setting are different with content of producer setting, conductivity measuring interface will display as picture (4-2), the code icon will appear on the upper right of LCD, when parameters with code symbol to be set more than two, LCD just displays one of the code symbols, user should enter into the parameter setting interface and carefully check the contents of setting or restore the meter to producer setting and again set needed parameters.   4.5. Parameter Setting:4.5.1. Conductivity testing parameter setting schedule (chart (4-3))Chart (4-3)Prompt MarkParameter Setting ItemsCodeParametersP1Standard solution series selectionUSA(84μS/cm, 1413μS/cm, 12.88 mS/cm, 111.9 mS/cm)CH(146.6μS/cm, 1408μS/cm, 12.85mS/cm, 111.3 mS/cm)P2Electrode constant type selection0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100P3Benchmark temperature selection25℃  20℃  18℃P4Temperature compensation coefficient setting0.00 to 9.99%P5Constant calibration settingP6Time for timing measuring setting0 to 99 minutesP7Temperature unit setting℃ ℉P8Date settingDateMonth / Day / YearP9Time settingTimeHour / MinuteP10Restore to producer settingOFF-On (shut-set)4.5.2. Conductivity calibration solution series selection (P1)(a) Press < MODE > key, meter enters into P1            mode, see picture (4-3);(b) Press < ▲ > key to choose the standard solution series: USA (Europe & U.S.A. series), CH (China series)(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode.Hh4.5.3. Electrode constant selection (P2)(a) Under P1 mode to press the < MODE > key and enters into P2 mode;(b) Press < ▲ > or < ▼ > key to change the constant setting: 0.1→0.5→1→5→10→50→100;(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode;(d) The producer setting of P2 is K=1.4.5.4. Benchmark temperature selection (P3)(a) Under P2 mode to press < MODE > key and enter into the P3 mode;(b) Press < ▲ > or < ▼ > key to choose the benchmark temperature: 25℃→20℃→18℃;(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode.(b) The producer setting of P3 is 25℃.Attention: If change the benchmark temperature to be other numerical value, upper right corner of LCD will display “       ”icon when in measuring mode.4.5.5. Temperature compensation coefficient setting (P4)(a) Under P3 mode to press < MODE > key and enters into P4 mode, shown as picture (4-4);(b) Press < UNIT > key to shift,press < ▲ > or < ▼ > key to change the number, the data changing range is from 0.00 to 9.99;Attention: When set the number to be 0.00, means there is no temperature compensation. For details please see item 4.4.4.;(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode;(d) The producer setting of P4 is 2.00%.Attention: If change the temperature coefficient to be other numerical value, the upper right corner of LCD will display “      ” icon when in measuring mode.4.5.6. Constant calibration setting (P5), please refer to item 4.4.3.(a) Under P4 mode to press < MODE > key and enters into P5 mode, LCD display last calibration constant, show as picture (4-5);(b) Press < UNIT > key, data moves to right and flashing, press < ▲ > or < ▼ > key to change number based on the constant which marks on the body of conductivity electrode when the figure is flashing.(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode;(d) If need to do calibration for other conductivity electrode which constant K is not 1, such as conductivity electrode with constant K=10.3, should enter into constant setting P2 to set the constant to be “10”, then enter into P5 mode and set the constant to be 10.3.4.5.7. Time for timing measuring setting (P6)(a) Press < MODE > key in mode P5 to enter into mode P6, see picture (4-6).(b) Press < UNIT > key, the “    ” will move rightward in turn and flash. Press < ▲ > or < ▼ > to alter the number when number is flashing.(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode.(d) Producer setting is “ 0 ” second.Note:in the form “         ”, the number in the front of “ :” is minute, and the maximum setting is 99, in the back of “ :” is second, the maximum setting is 59. After setting the timing measurement mode, LCD will display the “      ”.4.5.8. Temperature unit ℃/℉ setting (P7)(a) Press < MODE > key in mode P6 to enter into mode P7, see picture (4-7).(b) Press < ▲ > or < ▼ > key to choose temperature unit: ℃or℉.(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode.4.5.9. Date setting (P8)(a) Press < MODE > key in mode P7 to enter into mode P8, see picture (4-8).(b) Press < UNIT > key, the number will move rightward and flash, press < ▲ > or < ▼ > key to alter the number. The upper right is month-day and lower right is year.(c) Press< MODE > key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode.4.5.10.Time setting (P9)(a) Press < MODE > key in mode P8 to enter into mode P9, see picture (4-9).(b) Press < UNIT > key, the number will move rightward and flash, press < ▲ > or < ▼ > key to alter the number when number is flashing.(c) Press< MODE >key to enter into next parameter setting or press < ENTER > key to confirm and return to measuring mode.4.5.11. Restore to producer setting (P10)(a) Press < MODE > key in mode P9 to enter into mode P10, see picture (4-10).(b) Press < ▲ > key to choose “    ”, means parameter setting has been restored to the producer setting mode, and return to measuring mode after 2s.4.6. Considerations:4.6.1. The conductivity electrode has been calibrated before meter leaving factory, user can directly use it under normal circumstance;4.6.2. It is recommended to calibrate one time every month under the normal circumstances. It must be calibrated in time for high accuracy measurement. It is necessary to calibrate the newly purchased conductivity electrode or after using a certain period;4.6.3. Keep the conductivity electrode clean and wash it with purified water, then throw off the water on it before and after testing. It’d better to rinse electrode with sample solution when measuring;4.6.4. The platinum surface of 2401-M conductivity electrode is plated with a layer of metal platinum black to use as reducing the electrode polarization, enlarging the measuring range, so the surface of platinum can not be rubbed, and it only can be washed in water in case of damaging the platinum black coating. Wash the organic component pollution with tepid water containing detergent or with alcohol.4.6.5. Conductivity electrode before use can be immersed in water, to prevent the platinum black to be passivated, if found the platinum black plated electrode is invalid, can immerse it into 10% nitric acid solution or 10% hydrochloric acid for 2 minutes, then rinse with purified water and again test. The platinum black needs to be recoated, or replacing a new conductivity electrode if this situation does not improve.4.6.6. Please set P10 to be “On” to make meter restore to producer setting when meter’s calibration or display appears abnormal phenomenon, and do calibrate and test again.4.6.7. Please don’t take power plug out when meter still working, user only can take out the plug after meter to be turned off.5. Meter’s Complete Kit:5.1. Model MP515 precision conductivity meter5.2. Model 602 flexible electrode holder5.3. 2401-M conductivity electrode5.4. 1413μS/cm conductivity standard solution (50mL)5.5. 9V power adapter5.6. RS-232 communication cable5.7. MP515 communication software CD5.8. Operation manual5.9. Brief operation instruction6. Warranty:6.1. We warrant this meter to be free of charge maintain, replace the parts or products under normal using circumstances, from purchased time within one year caused by manufacturing bad and unable to work.6.2. Attached conductivity electrode does not belong to this warrant range, but, if the newly purchased electrode went wrong without using, it’s free of charge to maintain or replace.6.3. The above warranty is not apply to defects resulting from action of user such as misuse, improper wiring, operation outside of specification, improper maintenance or repair, or unauthorized modification.Chart Ⅰ Meter Producer Setting SchedulePrompt MarkParameter Setting ItemsParametersCodeP2Electrode constant type selectionK=1P3Benchmark temperature selection25℃P4Temperature compensation coefficient setting2.0%P6Time for timing measuring setting0 secondChart Ⅱ Code Icon and Abbreviation ScheduleCode and AbbreviationEnglishExplanationSolutionStandard solutionChinaChina series standard solutionUSAEurope & U.S.A series standard solutionConstantElectrode constant type selectionTemperature Compensation CoefficientTemperature compensation coefficient settingTemperature ReferenceBenchmark temperature settingConstant CalibrationConstant calibration settingEndCalibrationConductivityResistivityTotal Dissolved SolidSalinity

          • 电导率仪的精确度,采用的是引用误差概念。它是将仪表量程中的满刻度值,乘以误差百分比。例如我们以1.0级的电导率仪为例,它的精确度指标为:基本误差±1%F.S±1个字,配套误差±1.5%F.S±1个字,它是什么意思呢?基本误差是指电导率仪电计部分的误差,配套误差是指电计和电极配套使用的误差。F.S是指电子单元各分档的满量程。例如,对于0.0~199.9μS/cm量程档来说,基本误差为±1%×199.9±1个字≈±2.1μS/cm,配套误差为±1.5%×199.9±1个字≈±3.1μS/cm,±1个字是指仪表分辨率的*后一位数。因此,电导率仪的误差概念,是对于一段量程档而言的,与实际使用中的**误差概念是不同的,这一点要引起注意,例如你测试一杯纯水的电导率值为10μS/cm,你不能理解为其中有3.1μS/cm为误差值。在一些分挡和连续刻度的仪表中一般都应用引用误差的概念,例如mV计也是如此。

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